Research Base for the Inquiry Five Strategies


Strategy 1: Get Personal

  • Assor, A., Kaplan, H., & Roth, G. (2002). Choice is good, but relevance is excellent: Autonomy-enhancing and suppressing teacher behaviors predicting students' engagement in schoolwork. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(2), 261-278.
  • Gregory, A., & Weinstein, R. S. (2004). Connection and regulation at home and in school: Predicting growth in achievement for adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19(4), 405-427.
  • Webb, N. M., Nemer, K. M., & Ing, M. (2009). Small-Group reflections: Parallels between teacher discourse and student behavior in peer-directed groups. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15(1), 63–119.
  • Wentzel, K. R. (2009). Peers and academic functioning at school. In K. Rubin, W. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups. Social, emotional, and personality development in context (pp. 531-547). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Strategy 2: Ask More; Talk Less

  • Fredricks, J. A. (2014). Eight Myths of Student Disengagement: Creating Classrooms of Deep Learning. L.A.: Corwin.
  • Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Holubec, E. (1994). The new circles of learning: Cooperation in the classroom and school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Newmann, F., Wehlage, G., & Lamborn, D. (1992). The significance and sources of student engagement. In Student Engagement and Achievement in American Secondary Schools (pp. 11-39). ERIC.
  • Nystrand, Martin and Adam Gamoran. 1991. Instructional discourse, student engagement, and literature achievement. Research in the Teaching of English 25: 261–290.
  • Shernoff, D. J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Shneider, B., & Shernoff, E. S. (2003). Student engagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of flow theory. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(2), 158-176.
  • Slavin, R. E. (1996). Cooperative learning in middle and secondary schools. The Clearing House, 69(4), 200-204.
  • Applebee, Arthur N., Judith A. Langer, Martin Nystrand and Adam Gamoran. 2003. Discussion-Based Approaches to Developing Understanding. American Educational Research Journal 40 (3): 685-730.

Strategy 3: Encourage Evidence

  • Kahle, J. B., J. Meece, and K. Scantlebury. 2000. Urban African-American middle school science students: Does standards-based teaching make a difference? Journal of Research in Science Teaching 37 (9):1019-1041.
  • Marx, Ronald W., Phyllis C. Blumenfeld, Joseph S. Krajcik, Barry Fishman, Elliot Soloway, Robert Geier, and Revital Tali Tal. 2004. Inquiry-Based Science in the Middle Grades: Assessment of Learning in Urban Systemic Reform. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 41 (10): 1063-1080.
  • White, Barbara, Todd A. Shimoda, and John R. Frederiksen. 1999. Enabling Students to Construct Theories of Collaborative Inquiry and Reflective Learning: Computer Support for Metacognitive Development. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 10: 151-182.

Strategy 4: Maintain Neutrality

  • Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2003). The role of self-efficacy beliefs in student engagement and learning in the classroom. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 19(2), 119-137.
  • Noels, K. A., Clement, R., & Pelletier, L. G. (1999). Perceptions of teachers' communicative style and students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The Modern Language Journal, 83(1), 23-34.
  • Peter, F., & Dalbert, C. (2010). Do my teachers treat me justly? Implications of students' justice experience for class climate experience. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35(4), 297-305.

Strategy 5: Extend Thinking Time

  • Belland, B. R., Kim, C., & Hannafin, M. J. (2013). A framework for designing scaffolds that improve motivation and cognition. Educational Psychologist, 48(4), 243-270.
  • Reeve, J., & Jang, H. (2006). What teachers say and do to support students' autonomy during a learning activity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 209-218.

Additional Resources on Inquiry-Based Instruction

  • Bransford, John. (2005). How Students Learn. National Research Council, National Academies Press. 
  • Darling-Hammond, Linda. (2008). Powerful Learning: What We Know About Teaching for Understanding. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 
  • Dewey, John. (1938). Experience & Education. Collier Macmillan Publishers. 
  • Parker, Diane. 2007. Planning for Inquiry: It’s Not an Oxymoron! Illinois: National Council of Teachers of English.
  • Postman, N. and Weingartner (1969). Teaching as a Subversive Activity. Dell Publishing Co.
  • Strong, Richard W., Silver, Harvey F. and Perini, Matthew J. (2001). Teaching What Matters Most. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). 
  • Willingham, Daniel T. (2009). Why Don’t Students Like School? A Cognitive Scientist Answers Questions About How the Mind Works and What It Means for the Classroom. Jossey-Bass Publishing.